This paper provides a survey and tutorial of electromagnetic (EM) radiation exposure and reduction in mobile communication systems. EM radiation exposure has received a fair share of interest in the literature; however, this work is one of the first to compile the most interesting results and ideas related to EM exposure in mobile communication systems and present possible ways of reducing it. We provide a comprehensive survey of existing literature and also offer a tutorial on the dosimetry, metrics, international projects as well as guidelines and limits on the exposure from EM radiation in mobilecommunication systems.
Based on this survey and given that EM radiation exposure is closely linked with specific absorption rate (SAR) and transmit power usage, we propose possible techniques for reducing EM radiation exposure in mobile communication systems by exploring known concepts related to SAR and transmit power reduction in mobile systems. Thus, this paper serves as an introductory guide to EM radiation exposure in mobile communication systems and provides insights toward the design of future low-EM exposure mobile communication networks.