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# How to Calculate Bit Error Rate in ns3

To calculate the Bit Error Rate (BER) in ns3, we need to measure the number of bits which are received incorrectly out of the total number of bits transferred. BER is typically expressed as a fraction or percentage. We will offer you the most favourable outcomes and project suggestions.

Here are the steps to calculate BER in ns3.

Steps for calculating BER

1. Set up the simulation :
• To simulate the network, create a network topology with nodes, protocols and links configured.
1. Simulate bit errors :
• In the network, introduce a bit model.
1. Trace the packets and collect metrics :
• To record the number of bits transferred and the number of bit errors, use ns3 tracing capabilities.
1. Calculate BER :
• Calculate the ratio of the number of bit errors to the total number of bits transmitted.

Example of a simple BER calculation

Create a basic network topology and measure the BER by introducing bit errors using a rate error model.

set up the simulation

#include “ns3/core-module.h”

#include “ns3/network-module.h”

#include “ns3/internet-module.h”

#include “ns3/point-to-point-module.h”

#include “ns3/applications-module.h”

#include “ns3/error-model.h”

using namespace ns3;

NS_LOG_COMPONENT_DEFINE (“BitErrorRateExample”);

{

static uint32_t totalBitErrors = 0;

// Assume each packet is 1024 bytes

uint32_t packetSize = 1024 * 8; // bytes to bits

// Simulate bit errors

uint32_t bitErrors = packetSize * 0.01; // 1% bit error rate

totalBitErrors += bitErrors;

NS_LOG_UNCOND (“Total Bit Errors: ” << totalBitErrors);

NS_LOG_UNCOND (“Bit Error Rate: ” << static_cast<double>(totalBitErrors) / totalBitsReceived);

}

int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{

// Create two nodes

NodeContainer nodes;

nodes.Create (2);

// Set up the point-to-point link

PointToPointHelper pointToPoint;

pointToPoint.SetDeviceAttribute (“DataRate”, StringValue (“5Mbps”));

pointToPoint.SetChannelAttribute (“Delay”, StringValue (“2ms”));

// Install link devices on nodes

NetDeviceContainer devices = pointToPoint.Install (nodes);

// Create an error model

Ptr<RateErrorModel> em = CreateObject<RateErrorModel> ();

em->SetAttribute (“ErrorRate”, DoubleValue (0.01)); // 1% error rate

// Install the internet stack

InternetStackHelper stack;

stack.Install (nodes);

// Set up the UDP echo server on Node 1

uint16_t port = 9; // well-known echo port number

UdpEchoServerHelper echoServer (port);

ApplicationContainer serverApps = echoServer.Install (nodes.Get (1));

serverApps.Start (Seconds (1.0));

serverApps.Stop (Seconds (10.0));

// Set up the UDP echo client on Node 0

echoClient.SetAttribute (“MaxPackets”, UintegerValue (100));

echoClient.SetAttribute (“Interval”, TimeValue (Seconds (0.1))); // 10 packets per second

echoClient.SetAttribute (“PacketSize”, UintegerValue (1024)); // 1024 bytes

ApplicationContainer clientApps = echoClient.Install (nodes.Get (0));

clientApps.Start (Seconds (2.0));

clientApps.Stop (Seconds (10.0));

// Connect packet reception trace to callback

// Run the simulation

Simulator::Run ();

Simulator::Destroy ();

return 0;

}

Explanation

1. Simulation setup :

Two nodes are created. Those nodes are connected using a point-to-point link.

1. Simulate bit errors :

To simulate a 1% bit error rate, attach a rate error model to the receiver node (Node 1).

1. Application setup :

On Node 1, a UDP echo server is installed. and On Node 0, a UDP echo client is installed. Configure the client to send a specified number of packets at a specified interval.

1. Packet tracing and Collect Metrics :

To count the total number of bits received and the number of bit errors, use a callback function.

1. Calculating BER :

Calculate the BER as the ratio of the number of bit errors to the total number of bits received.

Step-by-step breakdown

1. Create Nodes and Links :

Two nodes are created. Those nodes are connected using a point-to-point link with a specified data rate and delay.

1. Configure Error Model :

To simulating a 1% bit error rate, a rate error model is created and attached to the receiving device on Node 1.

1. Install Internet Stack and Applications :

On the nodes, the Internet stack is installed and a UDP echo server and client are set up to generate and receive traffic.

1. Trace Packet Reception :

To count the total number of bits received and the number of bit errors, used a callback function.

1. Calculate BER :

The BER is calculated as the ratio of the number of bit errors to the total number of bits    received.

Overall, we had successfully learned on calculating BER in ns3 by measuring the number of bits that are received incorrectly out of the total number of bits transmitted. Also, we provide more related information on Bit Error Rate (BER).

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