What is ns3? Network Simulator-3 is shortly referred to as NS-3 which is mainly intended for designing, developing, and simulating any type of communication network. Using an NS3 simulator one can work with different kinds of wireless networking projects. Since it is furnished with a huge volume of libraries and modules to support wireless sensor networks. Actually, it is open-source software which mainly used for research and academic purposes to simulate and analyze the networking models.
This article shows you the end-to-end information of NS3, Zigbee, and NS3 Zigbee in Wireless Networking and Communication with Top Dissertation Titles!!!
What is Zigbee?
Nowadays, the Internet of Things (IoT) has gained great attention among researcher’s interested people due to its large contribution to the development of digital society. In order to support wireless IoT networks, Zigbee technology was introduced. Also, it is a worldwide standard to develop low-power and low-cost IoT applications. For this purpose, it utilizes IEEE 802.15.4 standard in unlicensed frequency bands of 900 MHz, 868 MHz, and 2.4 GHz.
The Zigbee 3.0 Protocol
In general, Zigbee protocol has the intention to deliver a user-friendly wireless information solution. In this, it considers the security and reliability of wireless network architecture to develop an efficient model NS3 Zigbee Projects. Specifically, Zigbee 3.0 protocol aims to provide the platform for establishing communication in noisy RF environs. Typically, it fulfills the needs of industrial and commercial applications.
One of the main advantages of Zigbee 3.0 is interoperability which supports products of various manufactures. When the IP domain links with Zigbee 3.0 networks, it makes the system screen and control the devices like tablets/smartphones on WAN / LAN to achieve the actual internet of things. Further, Zigbee 3.0 gives improved network security in two different types which are given as follows,
- Decentralized Security
- Here, it creates and manages the network and security keys of communication links by router instead of individual trust center/coordinator
- By the by, the nodes can be connected by network key from any Zigbee router
- Centralized Security
- Here, it creates and manages the network and security keys of communication links by individual trust center/coordinator
For any kind of protocol, it is necessary to discuss their in-built unique characteristics. Since these characteristics help you to achieve the objectives of wireless networking and communication. Also, it explicitly points out the capabilities to attain the efficiency of the system.
Zigbee Protocol Features
- Minimum delay
- Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
- Short duty cycle for high battery existence
- Enable collision prevention, responses and revises
- Support maximum 65,000 nodes in a network
- Use AES (128-bit) algorithm for network security
- Allow different topologies (point-to-multipoint, mesh, point-to-point)
How does Zigbee Communication Work?
Next, we can see in what way Zigbee establishes communication. By using a radio transceiver, the Zigbee smart devices will interact with each other. And, the chip which works on IEEE 802.15.4 standard and 2.4 GHz frequency will help to find the same band operated by Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. In contrast to Wi-Fi, Zigbee uses 10-20 meters of indoor connectivity due to its low-power nature.
So far, we have individually discussed the role of NS3 and Zigbee in wireless communication. Let’s start to discuss the significance of NS3 for Zigbee protocol and now, we can jointly see the functionalities and importance of NS3 Zigbee in wireless simulation.
NS3 with Zigbee
FoFor simulating the Zigbee network in NS-3, it requires a Zigbee network layer along with suitable modules. Here, we have given you the OSI layers for NS3 Zigbee in the combo of different protocols (6LowPAN, ADOC, and IPv6).
Zigbee OSI Stack
- Physical Layer
- IEEE 802.15.4
- MAC Layer
- IEEE 802.15.4
- 6LowPAN Adaptation Layer (Network Layer)
- Zigbee Network Security
- Protocols – AODV and IPv6
- Transport Layer
- Zigbee Application Framework
- ICMPv6 and TCP / UDP
- Application Layer
- Zigbee Profiles / Application
From the above list, now we can see about the Ipv6 Routing Protocol which uses AODV to form a route through NS3 Zigbee. At the moment of simulation, the routing process takes place by callback functions. And, some of them are given below for your references,
- Error Callback
- If the route / packets are falls under errors, then it is required to correct the errors
- Find the type of errors for further processing
- Local Callback
- The packet is essential to be routed in the node for data transmission
- If suppose there is no route available then the packet has to wait in queue for route availability
- Unicast Forwards Callback
- The packets are routed to one node on next hop through unicasting
- Multicast Forward Callback
- The packets are routed to multiple nodes through multicasting
Route Selections in ZigBee WSNs
As mentioned earlier, ZigBee largely works on IEEE 802.15.4 standard for supporting wireless networking and communication. This protocol provides a set of rules and policies for physical and MAC layers to function on unlicensed frequency bands. Furthermore, it has the special characteristics of expanding the wireless communication range on multihop transmission. So, it is optimal for selecting a route in the WSN using Zigbee technology. Here, we have given you one successful routing algorithm which is well-suited for ZigBee WSN applications.
Many-To-One Source Routing Algorithm
- Many-to-One (M2O) is a routing algorithm used in the Zigbee
- It forms routes among multiple nodes and single node which addressed as concentrator
- For every specific time, the concentrator distribute the route request (RREQ) messages
- Then the nodes redistribute the same RREQ within the network
- Meanwhile, nodes maintain the routing table of previous relay to make next hop to link concentrator
- In each distribution of RREQ, it hold the RREQ period which is defined by RREQ-ID
- Here, the RREQ-ID is incremented in the time of new RREQ message arrival
- Then the node update both RREQ and RREQ-ID in their routing table in regardless of increasing route cost
- In overall, RREQ messages flooding create the routes between node to concentrator
Next, we can see the functionalities of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard in MAC and physical layers of the NS3 Zigbee model. Since the layers are very important to handle the unlicensed spectrum for data transmission. Similarly, we also give you fine assistance in other layers of the Zigbee model with an aim to accomplish the research objectives.
IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and Physical Layers
- IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer
- Support beaconless and beacon operations
- Utilize CSMA-CA for controlling channel accessibility
- CSMS-MA – carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance
- CSMA-CA comprises methods for rebroadcast, channel observation and random backoff
- IEEE 802.15.4 PHY layer
- Support operations in unlicensed 2.4 GHz frequency
- Channels (2 MHz) and Carriers space (5 MHz)
- Additionally, WiFi IEEE 802.11 also operates in same band
- In channel overlapping, it causes packet losses and interference
- Transmit Link Quality Indicator (LQI) which distributing packets to MAC layer
- LQI – value of 0 to 255 (signifies received symbol quality)
- Further, the received packet’s LQI value is correlated with SINR value
- Support operations in unlicensed 2.4 GHz frequency
For your information of current research on NS3 Zigbee, here we have listed the top 5 dissertation titles. These titles are collected from top-research areas of wireless networks and communications. We assure you that our technical legends will give you determined research and developments service for your handpicked titles.
Dissertation Titles for NS3 Zigbee
- Advance Multi-Resource Provisioning Model for IoT-based Cooperative Computing
- Cache-aided Resource Distribution and Energy Harvesting for UAV-assisted IoT NOMA Systems
- Cooperative Radio Resource Sharing and Edge Caching using Joint Optimization in 5G- IoT Systems
- Predefined Blocklength based Resource Allocation and Manager Selection in 5G enabled V2X Systems
- Efficient Multi-Modulation Distribution Framework for Scalable Optical Communication
Further, if you want to know more NS3 Zigbee project topics then approach us. We will provide you with a list of exciting topics from your interesting research areas. And, we also direct you on the right path until you reach your research destination. All these services are common for both final year students and research scholars.