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# How to Calculate Network Outage probability in ns3

To calculate the network outage probability in ns3, we need to determine the fraction of time or events where the received signal quality (such as SINR or SNR) falls below a certain threshold, rendering the communication unreliable or unusable. For assessing the reliability of wireless communication systems, Outage probability is a key metric.

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Here is a quick guide on calculating network outage probability in ns3.

Steps for calculating network outage probability

1. Set up the simulation :
• Make sure that ns3 is installed in the computer. If not, install it and include necessary modules.
1. Create Network Topology:
• create nodes for the base stations (eNodeBs) and user equipment (UEs)..
• Set up wireless network with appropriate configurations.
1. Configure Applications:
• On the nodes, setup applications to generate and receive traffic.
1. 4. Enable Tracing and Metrics Collection:
• To capture relevant metrics such as SINR or SNR, use ns3 tracing capabilities.
1. 5. Define Outage Threshold:
• Set the SINR/SNR threshold below which the communication is considered to be in outage.
1. Run the simulation :
• Execute the simulation and collect the trace data.
1. Analyze the results :
• Post-process the trace data to determine the percentage of time or events where the SINR/SNR is below the threshold.

Example code

Create a basic set up of network with LTE network, generate traffic, and calculate the outage probability in ns3.

#include “ns3/core-module.h”

#include “ns3/network-module.h”

#include “ns3/internet-module.h”

#include “ns3/point-to-point-module.h”

#include “ns3/applications-module.h”

#include “ns3/lte-module.h”

#include “ns3/epc-helper.h”

#include “ns3/mobility-module.h”

#include “ns3/flow-monitor-module.h”

using namespace ns3;

NS_LOG_COMPONENT_DEFINE (“LteOutageProbabilityExample”);

double SINRThreshold = 1.0; // Threshold for outage in dB

void CheckOutage (Ptr<PhyStatsCalculator> phyStats, Ptr<OutputStreamWrapper> stream)

{

std::map<uint16_t, std::vector<double>> sinrMap = phyStats->GetSinrStats ();

uint32_t totalEvents = 0;

uint32_t outageEvents = 0;

for (auto const& entry : sinrMap)

{

for (double sinr : entry.second)

{

totalEvents++;

if (sinr < SINRThreshold)

{

outageEvents++;

}

}

}

double outageProbability = (double) outageEvents / totalEvents;

*stream->GetStream () << Simulator::Now ().GetSeconds () << “\t” << outageProbability << std::endl;

Simulator::Schedule (Seconds (1.0), &CheckOutage, phyStats, stream); // Schedule next check

}

int main (int argc, char *argv[])

{

// Set up logging

LogComponentEnable (“UdpClient”, LOG_LEVEL_INFO);

LogComponentEnable (“UdpServer”, LOG_LEVEL_INFO);

// Create LTE network nodes

NodeContainer ueNodes;

NodeContainer enbNodes;

ueNodes.Create (10);

enbNodes.Create (3);

// Install Mobility model

MobilityHelper mobility;

mobility.SetMobilityModel (“ns3::ConstantPositionMobilityModel”);

mobility.Install (enbNodes);

mobility.SetPositionAllocator (“ns3::GridPositionAllocator”,

“MinX”, DoubleValue (0.0),

“MinY”, DoubleValue (0.0),

“DeltaX”, DoubleValue (50.0),

“DeltaY”, DoubleValue (50.0),

“GridWidth”, UintegerValue (3),

“LayoutType”, StringValue (“RowFirst”));

mobility.Install (ueNodes);

// Create LTE helper and EPC helper

Ptr<LteHelper> lteHelper = CreateObject<LteHelper> ();

Ptr<PointToPointEpcHelper> epcHelper = CreateObject<PointToPointEpcHelper> ();

lteHelper->SetEpcHelper (epcHelper);

// Install LTE devices to the nodes

NetDeviceContainer enbLteDevs = lteHelper->InstallEnbDevice (enbNodes);

NetDeviceContainer ueLteDevs = lteHelper->InstallUeDevice (ueNodes);

// Install Internet stack on UEs

InternetStackHelper internet;

internet.Install (ueNodes);

// Assign IP addresses to UEs

Ipv4InterfaceContainer ueIpIface;

// Attach UEs to eNodeBs

for (uint32_t i = 0; i < ueNodes.GetN (); ++i)

{

lteHelper->Attach (ueLteDevs.Get (i), enbLteDevs.Get (i % enbNodes.GetN ()));

}

// Install and start applications on UEs and remote host

uint16_t dlPort = 1234;

ApplicationContainer clientApps;

ApplicationContainer serverApps;

for (uint32_t i = 0; i < ueNodes.GetN (); ++i)

{

UdpServerHelper myServer (dlPort);

myClient.SetAttribute (“MaxPackets”, UintegerValue (1000));

myClient.SetAttribute (“Interval”, TimeValue (MilliSeconds (100)));

myClient.SetAttribute (“PacketSize”, UintegerValue (1024));

}

serverApps.Start (Seconds (1.0));

serverApps.Stop (Seconds (10.0));

clientApps.Start (Seconds (2.0));

clientApps.Stop (Seconds (10.0));

// Install PhyStatsCalculator to collect SINR

Ptr<PhyStatsCalculator> phyStats = CreateObject<PhyStatsCalculator> ();

phyStats->SetAttribute (“OutputFilename”, StringValue (“PhyStats.txt”));

lteHelper->GetLtePhy()->TraceConnectWithoutContext(“ReportCurrentCellRsrpSinr”, MakeCallback(&PhyStatsCalculator::ReportCurrentCellRsrpSinr, phyStats));

// Schedule outage checking

Ptr<OutputStreamWrapper> stream = Create<OutputStreamWrapper> (&std::cout);

*stream->GetStream () << “Time(s)\tOutageProbability\n”;

Simulator::Schedule (Seconds (1.0), &CheckOutage, phyStats, stream);

// Run the simulation

Simulator::Stop (Seconds (11.0));

Simulator::Run ();

// Clean up

Simulator::Destroy ();

return 0;

}

Explanation:

1. Setup Logging:
• To track activities, enable logging for the UDP applications.
2. Create Nodes and Network:
• To represent UEs and eNodeBs, create nodes.
• For UEs and eNodeBs, configure mobility models.
3. Install LTE and EPC Helper:
• Configure and create LTE and EPC helpers.
• On the UEs and eNodeBs, install LTE devices.
4. Install Internet Stack:
• On UEs, install the Internet stack.
• Assign IP addresses to the UEs.
5. Attach UEs to eNodeBs:
• Attach each UE to an eNodeB. Here, a round-robin attachment is used for simplicity.
6. Install Applications:
• On UEs, install UDP server applications.
• Install UDP client applications on the UEs, sending traffic to the server.
7. PhyStatsCalculator:
• To collect SINR statistics, install PhyStatsCalculator.
8. Schedule Outage Checking:
• To check for outages based on SINR, define a function.
• Schedule this function to run at regular intervals during the simulation.
9. Run Simulation:
• Run the simulation for the specified duration.
10. Calculate Outage Probability:
• The CheckOutage function calculates the percentage of time or events where the SINR is below the threshold, and logs the outage probability.

Analyzing the Results:

• Outage Probability:
• The outage probability is calculated as the fraction of events where the SINR falls below the threshold.
• This metric provides an indication of the reliability of the communication in the network.

Totally, we had an implementation result on calculating network outage probability in ns3 by determining the fraction of time or events where the received signal quality falls below a certain threshold, rendering the communication unreliable or unusable. Also, we provide more detailed explanation on Network outage probability.